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Crawford and Associates is committed to promoting public accountability and stewardship of public resources. We are significantly involved as leaders in the state and local government financial management arena. We'll keep you informed of the latest developments and other company news via these blog postings.

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Posted by on in Laws Chat

The 2019 Legislative session brought many changes to municipal finance state statutes.   The summary below is prepared from the OML Sine Die Document.  The document with links to each bill is available on the Oklahoma Municipal League website.

Public Construction/Bond Retainage: HB 1114 amends 61 O.S. Section 226 impacting a construction contract subject to a bond. It requires the retainage not to exceed 5 percent to be reduced to 2.5 percent with respect to the balance of the work to be performed, once the contractor’s work is determined by the holder to be at least 50 percent complete. A subcontract “shall” include retainage – current law is “may”. The terms of the subcontract retainage are the same as above. This bill takes effect November 1, 2019

Law Enforcement/Training & Salary Repayments: HB 1207 requires that if an officer leaves the original employing agency which paid for CLEET training later than one year, but less than two years, after initial employment, the second agency or the person receiving the training must reimburse the original employing agency 50 percent of the cost of CLEET training and salary paid to the person while completing the basic police course by the original employing agency. It deletes language relating to the use of a promissory note to recoup academy training expenses. This bill takes effect November 1, 2019.

Service Fees: HB 1425 allows municipalities to apply a service fee to online or in-person transactions to offset bank processing fees. It exempts municipal courts not of records. This bill takes effect November 1, 2019.

Municipal Court Clerks/Digitized Receipts: HB 1428 requires a municipal treasurer to credit deposits for the municipal court to the fund designated by the municipal governing body. It requires the court clerk to make a receipt for the fees, fines, and forfeitures collected which will be retained by the municipality together with a detailed statement of all costs, the style of the case in which they were paid, and the name of the defendant. It allows the receipt and detailed statement retained by the municipality to be saved and produced in an electronic format. This bill takes effect November 1, 2019.

Public Bidding/Local Bid Preference: HB 1885 amends 60 O.S. Section 176 and 61 O.S. Section 103 by providing that construction contracts “may provide” for a local bid preference of not more than 5  percent if the awarding governing body determines there is an economic benefit to the local area or economy. No preference shall be granted unless the local bidding entity is the second lowest qualified bid. The local bidder or contractor must agree to perform the contract for the same price and terms as the bid proposed by the nonlocal bidder or contractor. “Local bid” means the bidding person is authorized to do business in Oklahoma and maintains a bona fide establishment for transacting business within this state. This provision does not apply to any construction contract for which federal funds are available for expenditure when its provisions may be in conflict with federal law or regulation. The local preference amendment to 61 O.S. Section 103 is the same except it applies to public construction contracts exceeding $50,000. The bill contains details. This bill takes effect November 1, 2019.

Street & Road Construction Projects: SB 400 modifies the population requirement where the board of county commissioners may construct, improve, repair or maintain any of the streets of a municipality if the municipality has passed a sales tax or dedicated fee with the proceeds earmarked for that purpose. It requires the municipality to have a population of 5,000 or greater and for the county to have a population of less than 150,000. This bill takes effect November 1, 2019.

Sales & Use Tax: SB 513 requires a remote seller that had aggregate sales of tangible personal property within Oklahoma or delivered to locations within Oklahoma subject to tax under provisions therein worth at least $100,000 during the preceding or current calendar year to collect and remit the tax imposed under provisions therein. It requires the duty to collect and remit tax to apply to the first calendar month succeeding the month when the threshold provided therein is met. It prohibits sales by a remote seller made through a marketplace forum or a referrer's platform where the tax is collected and remitted by the marketplace facilitator or referrer from being included in determining whether the remote seller has met the threshold amount provided therein. This bill takes effect November 1, 2019.


Sales Tax Exemptions:

Sales Tax Exemption/American Legion: HB 1003 provides a sales tax exemption to American Legion organizations chartered by the United States Congress or entities organized under the laws of Oklahoma or another state pursuant to the authority of the national American Legion organization. This bill takes effect July 1, 2019.

Sales Tax Exemption/Medical Items: : HB 1262 exempts from sales tax, when administered, distributed or prescribed by a medical practitioner who is authorized by law to administer, distribute or prescribe such items, prosthetic devices, durable medical equipment used in the home and mobility-enhancing equipment. This bill takes effect July 1, 2019.

Sales Tax Exemption/Manufacturing & Digital Fabrication Tools: HB 2530 exempts from sales tax sales of tangible personal property or services to or by an organization which is exempt from taxation pursuant to the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, 26 U.S.C., Section 501(c)(3), verified with a letter from the MIT Fab Foundation as an official member of the Fab Lab Network in compliance with the Fab Charter, and able to provide documentation that their primary and principal purpose is to provide community access to advanced 21st century manufacturing and digital fabrication tools for science, technology, engineering, art and math (STEAM) learning skills, developing inventions, creating and sustaining businesses and producing personalized products. This bill takes effect November 1, 2019.

Sales Tax Exemption/Railroad Rolling Stock: SB 18 modifies the sales tax exemption for railroad rolling stock. It extends the sunset day on the sales tax exemption to July 1, 2024, from July 1, 2019. The bill clarifies language that the exemption applies to leases, as well as sales. It adds railroad car maintenance and retrofitting to the exemption. This bill takes effect July 1, 2019.

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Posted by on in Crawford Chat


Once again, staff of Crawford & Associates was pleased to participate in the annual OSCPA Day of Service Program on October 18, 2019. The Day of Service program involves Oklahoma CPAs and CPA firms that agree to volunteer for worthy causes that specific day in an effort to give back to their communities. Our group of volunteers have elected to volunteer each year to assist in the preparation for the annual P31 Paint the Town Pink cancer survivor event held at the Chevy Bricktown Event Center in Oklahoma City. Many thanks this year to our firm's volunteers (pictured from left to right in the photo above) - Justin Kersey, Candy Dow, Wendy Moore, David Koehn, and Kyle Sides! 

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b2ap3_thumbnail_2019CruiseFamily2.jpg b2ap3_thumbnail_2019CruiseStaff2.jpg

Our wonderful work family at Crawford & Associates just celebrated our 35th Anniversary with an amazing cruise aboard the MSC Seaside. The cruise departed from Miami, FL and stopped in San Juan, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, St. Maarten, and the Bahamas. Our entire group, including staff, family and guests included 67 folks pictured above. We were thrilled to have the time together on the Caribbean seas and enjoy the ports of call, ship entertainment and of course the food and drink!

Picture at left is of our entire group, all 67 members of staff, family and guests; while picture on the right is of C&A staff.

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Posted by on in Crawford Chat


As part of the firm's ongoing commitment to enhancing the knowledge and skills of municipal officials, in February 2019 Crawford & Associates shareholder Brenda Wright presented a session on Advanced Bank Reconciliations to participants at a training program for the Oklahoma Municipal Clerks, Treasurers and Finance Officers Association. The firm has been actively involved in developing and providing training programs for the OMCTFO for the past 30 years.  

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Posted by on in Crawford Chat


Once again in January 2019, Crawford & Associates managing shareholder Marcy Twyman conducted the Annual OML Budget Workshop sponsored by the Oklahoma Municipal League. For over the past 25 years, Crawford & Associates has prepared and presented this vital training program to Oklahoma municipal officials. OML indicates that this workshop continues to be one of the most popular training programs they offer. Many of the documents and forms discussed in the training program are available on the Useful Tools page of the firm's website. Thank you Marcy for continuing our commitment to the betterment of municipal budgeting, finance and accounting.

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Posted by on in Laws Chat

The 2018 Legislative session has come to an end and with brings a few changes to municipal finance state laws.  The summary below is prepared from the OML Sine Die Document.  You can access the entire Sine Die document with links to each bill on the Oklahoma Municipal League website.  

HB 1019XX – Creates a new law under Title 68 O.S. Section 1391 requiring marketplace facilitators and referrers who meet certain sales thresholds to file an election with the OTC to collect and remit sales tax imposed under Title 68.

HB 3347 - Amends Title 11 O.S. Section 17-208 by expanding the notice of a public hearing on a  proposed municipal budget to include posting “on the municipality’s website” in addition to a newspaper of  general circulation in the municipality not less than five (5) days before the date of the hearing. The bill also removes current law regarding the limited publication requirements for small municipalities when the total operating budget, not including debt service, does not exceed $12,000 per year. Under current law, for these small communities the proposed budget and notice may be posted at the governing body’s principal headquarters in lieu of publication in a newspaper. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2018.

SB 1042 - Amends 11 O.S. Section 17-105.1 regarding required auditor filings with the State Auditor and Inspector who may contract for the “preparation” and reporting of the information submitted on the annual municipal finance survey  form. Previous law required a “compilation" rather than “preparation”. Effective November 1, 2018.

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Posted by on in Crawford Chat


Crawford & Associates was proud to have the opportunity to participate in this year's OSCPA CPA Day of Service, an annual event designed for CPAs and CPA firms to give back to their communities by volunteering for a variety of important causes. Once again in 2017, the Crawford group was excited to help out with setting up the OKC Bricktown Chevy Events Center for Project 31's annual Paint the Town Pink Gala held on October 20 honoring breast cancer survivors and the families. Pictured above are this year's volunteers (from left to right) Brenda Wright, Dwayne Tate, Justin Kersey, Mike Crawford, Marcy Twyman, Wendy Moore and Tammy Hunt. Our thanks go out to Sarah at Project 31 for allowing us to help out again and to each of the Crawford staff that were able to volunteer.

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Posted by on in Laws Chat

Another  legislative session has come to an end and with it comes several new laws of interest to municipal finance, municipal court, and City Clerks.  Below is a brief summary from the OML Sine Die Document.  If you need more information, you can access the entire document from the OML website with direct links to each bill.

Finance, Debt and Purchasing:

Public Construction Contracts/Posting Bids: SB 321 by Sen. Marty Quinn (R-Claremore) and Rep. Avery Frix (R-Muskogee) amends 61 O.S. Section 104 by altering the notice requirements for proposals to award public construction contracts. The publication time is increased from current law’s at least 20 days to at least “21” days prior to the date set for opening bids. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2017.

Public Finance/Cooperative Purchasing Agreement: SB 563 by Sen. Micheal Bergstrom (R-Adair) and Rep. Jason Murphey (R-Guthrie) authorizes any school district including a technology school district to participate in, sponsor, or administer a cooperative purchasing agreement for the acquisition of any commodities or services with one or more public agencies. This includes joint or multiparty contracts between public agencies and open-ended state public procurement contracts. Any local public procurement unit may participate in, sponsor, conduct or administer a cooperative or piggybacking purchasing agreement under the details in the bill. A local public procurement unit is any county, city, town, state agency, and any other subdivision of the state or public unit o agency thereof. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2017.

Municipal Audit/Small Municipalities: SB 354 by Sen. David Holt (R-OKC) and Rep. Mike Osburn (R-Edmond) amends 11 O.S. Section 17-105 impacting agreed upon procedure engagements in lieu of audits of municipalities with an income of at least $25,000 and a population of less than 2,500. Removed from current law is the requirement for the AUP engagement to be conducted in accordance with “fieldwork and reporting standards in Government Auditing Standards”. The bill takes effect on August 25, 2017.

Public Trust/Audit: SB 358 by Sen. David Holt (R-OKC) and Rep. Mike Osburn (R-Edmond) amends 60 O.S. Section 180.1 regarding agreed upon procedure engagements for trusts with more than $50,000 in revenues or assets, and for whom an annual financial statement audit is not required by another law. Removed from current law is the requirement for the AUP engagement to be conducted in accordance with “field work and reporting standards in Government Auditing Standards.” The bill takes effect on August 25, 2017.

Public Funds/Bonds: HB 1949 by Rep. John Jordan (R-Yukon) and Sen. Nathan Dahm (R-Broken Arrow) creates new law requiring local governments at least 30 days prior to a vote on a bond or other evidence of indebtedness to publish on their website a description of the projects or assets that will be acquired, improved or repaired together with a description of any unpaid or unfinished bond approved by the voters preceding the date of the vote on the bonds to be issued and a detailed description of the use of the previous bond proceeds. If to acquire or improve real property, the description shall include a physical address using a street number or some other method by which the location of the property can be identified. If the local government does not have a website then the information must be assessable through some other method using the Internet. If there is no reasonable method the entity shall publish at least once in a newspaper of general circulation. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2017.

Utility Relocation/Right-of-Way: SB 85 by Sen. Jack Fry (R-Midwest City) and Rep. Dustin Roberts (R-Durant) amends 69 O.S. Section 1205 regarding relocation of utility facilities for construction on the Interstate Highway System within municipalities of 5,000 or more. Federal funds, if available, may be used. In such event the municipality in which such construction is to be performed shall furnish funds to the state necessary to match the federal funds, “unless the utility requiring relocation is owned by another municipality having a population of 5,000 or more, in which case the municipal utility owner shall furnish the funds. The bill takes effect on July 1, 2017.

Public Utility Provider/Domestic Abuse: HB 1466 by Rep. Elise Hall (R-Oklahoma City) and Sen. A J Griffin (R-Guthrie) amends the Protection from Domestic Abuse Act regarding utility providers. To ensure those with a protective order can maintain a household utility account and an existing wireless telephone number the court may issue an order to the providers to transfer billing responsibility to the petitioner if the petitioner is not the account holder. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2017.

City Clerk:

Open Meeting Act/Minutes: HB 2181 by Rep. Charles Ortega (R-Altus) amends 25 O.S. Section 115 requiring municipal clerks and minute clerks of the school board to produce tentative minutes of regular and/or special meetings. The minutes must be furnished “no later than the close of the business day” within “four (4) business” days, “excluding the day of the meeting,” after “the meeting.” Business days shall mean “Monday through Friday and does not include Saturday, Sunday or holidays legally declared by the State of Oklahoma.” Please note, current law allows five (5) days. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2017.

Open Records Act/Record Reproduction: SB 191 by Sen. Roger Thompson (R-Okemah) and former Rep. David Brumbaugh amends the Open Records Act by prohibiting a record from being unreasonably relayed until after completion of a prior records request that will take substantially longer than the current request. A delay is limited solely to the time required for preparing the requested documents and the avoidance of excessive disruptions to the public body’s essential functions. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2017.

Open Meeting/Public Notice: SB 403 by Sen. David Holt (R-OKC) and Rep. Elise Hall (R-OKC) amends the Open Meeting Act at 25 O.S. Section 311. At least 24 hours prior to the “regularly scheduled” meetings, all public bodies shall display public notice “by at least one of the following methods: posting at the principle office or at the location of the meeting if no office exists; on the public body’s Internet website in accordance with 74 O.S. Section 3102. In addition, the public body “shall offer and consistently maintain an email distribution system for distribution of such notice and any person may request to be included without charge, and their request shall be accepted. In lieu of these posting requirements, a public body may elect to follow the requirements found in subparagraph b of paragraph 9 of this subsection, provided that 48 hour notice is required for special meetings and that the 48 hour requirement shall exclude Saturdays, Sundays and holidays legally declared by the State. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2017.

Insurance/Surplus Lines Tax: SB 438 by Sen. John Sparks (D-Norman) and Rep. Glen Mulready (R-Tulsa) amends 36 O.S. Section 1115 by providing the policies sold to any city or town in this state, incorporated pursuant to law, shall be exempt from the surplus lines premium tax. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2017.

Municipal Court:

Municipal Court/Domestic Violence: HB 1121 by Rep. Ryan Martinez (R-Edmond) and Sen. Stephanie Bice (R-OKC) creates the Oklahoma Domestic Violence Court Act of 2017. Subject to the availability of funds, any district or municipal court of record may establish a domestic violence court program as a specialized judicial process for domestic matters both civil and criminal under the bills requirements. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2017.

Municipal Court/Forensic Science Improvement Revolving Fund: SB 38 by Sen. Roger Thompson (R-Okemah) and Rep. Kevin Wallace (R-Wellston) amends 20 O.S. Section 1313.4 to increase the Forensic Science Improvement Assessment from $5 to $10 per applicable offense. This fee is collected by municipal court clerks. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2017.

Human Resources:

Employment/Unemployment: HB 1110 by Rep. Randy McDaniel (R-Edmond) and Sen. Dan Newberry (R-Tulsa) amends the Employment Security Act of 1980 in a number of ways including changing the definition of “experience period”, “computation of benefit amount”, and alterations to the benefits for employees of governmental or nonprofit employers, changes to professional employer organizations and the like. In addition, new law provides for a rate reduction for technology reinvestment apportionment, the creation of a technology fund and provisions for administration of the technology fund. The bill repeals 40 O.S. Section 3-809 regarding group accounts for two or more employers. The bill takes effect on July 1, 2017.

Workers’ Compensation: HB 2423 by Rep. Leslie Osborn (R-Mustang) and Sen. Kimberly David (R-Porter) amends 40 O.S. Section 418 regarding each insurance carrier writing workers’ compensation insurance and each self-insured employer authorized to make workers’ compensation payments directly to employees. These entities shall pay to the OTC up to a sum equal to three-fourths of one percent (3/4 of 1%) of the total workers’ compensation losses, excluding medical payments and temporary total disability compensation, based on the records of the Workers’ Compensation Court of “Existing Claims or the Workers’ Compensation Commission.” The bill adds this payout is based on the proceeds being reasonable and necessary to accomplish the objectives of the Oklahoma Occupational Health and Safety Standards Act. The bill takes effect on July 1, 2017.


Sales Tax Changes:

Sales Tax/Veterans: HB 1198 by Rep. Tommy Hardin (R-Madill) and Sen. Frank Simpson (RArdmore) amends the veteran’s sales tax exemption by adding the requirement that the veteran is registered with the new veterans registry created by the Oklahoma Department of Veterans Affairs. An exception is made for those veterans who have previously received the sales tax exemption. Section 1 of the bill takes effect on November 1, 2017. Sections 2 through 12 will take effect on November 1, 2020.

Sales Tax/Remote Sales: HB 1427 by Rep. Kyle Hilbert (R-Depew) and Sen. James Leewright (R-Bristow) creates the Out-of-State Tax Collections Enforcement Act of 2017. It states the Tax Commission may establish the Out-of-State Tax Collections Enforcement Division. The Commission may contract with or employ out-of-state auditors. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2017.

Sales Tax/Noncompliance Procedures: HB 2343 by Rep. Leslie Osborn (R-Mustang) and Sen. Kimberly David (R-Porter) amends 68 O.S. Section 1268.3 (A) regarding noncompliant taxpayer “operating under a sales tax permit” who within any consecutive 24 month period, has failed to file two reports or remit tax due for any two (2) months, as required under the provisions of any tax law. The taxpayer shall not be deemed noncompliant for nonpayment of income taxes. Paragraph (B) is amended by broadening current law to include the “provisions of any tax law”. The bill takes effect on July 1, 2017.

Sales Tax/ Vendor Deductions: HB 2367 by Rep. Leslie Osborn (R-Mustang) and Sen. Kimberly David (R-Porter) repeals 68 O.S. Section 1367.1 and 1410.1 removing current deductions from sales and use tax collections respectively. The deduction from taxes due is 1% of tax due (with maximums) for vendors keeping records, filing reports and remitting taxes when due. The bill takes effect on July 1, 2017.

Agriculture Fees/Municipal Exemption Removal: HB 2392 by Rep. Leslie Osborn (R-Mustang) and Sen. Kimberly David (R-Porter) amends 2 O.S. Section 3-82 regarding license/certification fees for pesticide applications. The measure removes the fee exemption for governmental agencies and increases the annual registration fee from $160 to $210. The bill increases the maximum amount designated for the State Department of Agriculture Unwanted Pesticide Disposal Fund from $100,000 to $300,000. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2017.

Motor Vehicles/Sales Tax: HB 2433 by Rep. Leslie Osborn (R-Mustang) and Sen. Kimberly David (R-Porter) amends various sections of law to enact what appears to be a sales/use tax of 1.25% on the sale of motor vehicles. This is done by amending exceptions in current law. The wording is awkward. Specifically stated: “the sale of motor vehicles shall not be subject to any sales and use taxes levied by cities, counties or other jurisdictions of the state”. Amended is: 68 O.S. Sections 1355, 2106, 1361, 1402 & 1404. The bill went into effect on May 31, 2017.



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Posted by on in Accounting Chat

A “lot of water has gone under the bridge”, so to speak, since we last talked about GASB pronouncements.  In case you didn’t know, I’m a huge Thunder fan.  And my last blog post is dated May 13, 2016.  At that time, we had just won the Western Conference semi-finals and were getting ready to face the Golden State Warriors in the Western Conference Finals.  And we all know what happened in the infamous Game 6 of that series.  Even though we were up 3-1 in the series and led most of Game 6, we lost not only that game, but the next one as well.  And then the most awful July 4th when the unthinkable happened—Kevin Durant leaves the Thunder to go play with the enemy.  Yep, our beloved KD is playing with the Golden State Warriors who are now up 3-1 against the Cleveland Cavaliers in the NBA Finals.  You can guess who I’m rooting for.

Anyway, I say all that to say, there’s been a lot of activity for GASB since that time as well.  So let’s get caught up.  We have four additional standards to implement in the near future.

Statement No. 83, Certain Asset Retirement Obligations – Some of you (like me) may be asking:  “What’s an Asset Retirement Obligation (ARO)?”  While it’s not anticipated that this will have a significant impact on most governments, we still need to be aware of what it pertains to, in case something like this ever comes up in your government or governmental client. 

There are GASB standards already in existence that address some types of AROs.  For example, Statement No. 18 related to accounting for landfill closure and postclosure care costs.  That’s a form of ARO.  Also Statement No. 49 that addresses pollution remediation activities also relates to ARO. 

But this standard addresses different kinds of AROs.  Here are some examples:  1) retirement of sewage treatment plants; 2) retirement of x-ray machines; 3) retirement of magnetic resonance imaging machines; 4) retirement of research facilities owned by public universities like nuclear research reactors.  These kinds of assets may have to be disposed in a certain way due to radioactive material or waste generated by equipment regulated by federal, state or local laws and regulations.  So while these transactions may not occur very frequently or at several governments, be aware there is now a standard that addresses accounting for these types of liabilities when they occur.

The technical definition of an ARO is:   “a legally enforceable liability associated with the retirement of a tangible capital asset”.  If your government has a legal obligation to perform future asset retirement activities related to a tangible capital asset, it should recognize a liability based on the guidance in this statement.

This statement must be implemented for periods beginning after June 15, 2018.  If you have a June 30 year end, that would be effective as of June 30, 2019.

Statement No. 84, Fiduciary ActivitiesThis new standard, unlike the previous one, will likely affect many governments.  That’s probably the reason for the extended required implementation date.  To allow governments plenty of time to identify and classify their fiduciary activities, the board permits governments to wait until periods beginning after December 15, 2018, to implement this standard.  For June 30 year ends, that would be effective June 30, 2020.

So here are the highlights of this standard:

  1. Criteria is established for identifying fiduciary activities of governments.
    1. Focus is on whether a government is controlling the assets of the fiduciary activity, AND
    2. The beneficiaries with whom a fiduciary relationship exists
  2. There are now additional considerations for classification as a component unit for fiduciary activities that are postemployment benefits—whether that be pension or OPEB.
  3. There are also criteria to be used to classify non-postemployment benefit component units as a fiduciary activity.
  4. If an activity is classified as fiduciary, then it should be reported in a fiduciary fund in the basic financial statements.
    1. A statement of fiduciary net position should be prepared AND
    2. A statement of changes in fiduciary net position should be prepared (for ALL fiduciary funds). You’ll recall under current standards, an agency fund is not required to present a statement of changes in fiduciary net position.
    3. There are 4 types of fiduciary funds
      1. Pension and OPEB trust funds
      2. Investment trust funds
  • Private-purpose trust funds, AND
  1. Custodial funds (no longer will there be agency funds) Basically this category should be used to report fiduciary activities that are not held in a trust or equivalent arrangement that meets specific criteria
  1. For fiduciary component units reported in the fiduciary fund financial statements of a primary government, it should combine its information with its component units that are also fiduciary component units and aggregate that combined information with the primary government’s fiduciary funds.
  2. Also provides for the recognition of a liability to beneficiaries and details when that liability should be recognized.


Statement No. 85, Omnibus 2017And no, we’re not talking about a bus that takes you to the Omniplex (grin).  We’re talking about a collection of practice issues that are clarified or corrected from previous statements.  So this one covers a myriad of topics.  And some of these may have already been implemented by some governments.  Here’s the list.  It’s rather long.

  1. Blending a component unit in circumstances in which the primary government is a business-type activity that reports in a single column for financial statement presentation
  2. Reporting amounts previously reported as goodwill and “negative” goodwill.
  3. Classifying real estate held by insurance entities.
  4. Measuring certain money market investments and participating inter-earning investment contracts at amortized cost
  5. Timing of the measurement of pension or OPEB liabilities and expenditures recognized in financial statements prepared using the current financial resources measurement focus
  6. Recognizing on-behalf payments for pensions or OPEB in employer financial statements
  7. Presenting payroll-related measures in required supplementary information for purposes of reporting by OPEB plans and employers that provide OPEB
  8. Classifying employer-paid member contributions for OPEB
  9. Simplifying certain aspects of the alternative measurement method for OPEB
  10. And finally, (whew!), accounting and financial reporting for OPEB provided through certain multiple-employer defined benefit OPEB plans

So if any of these items apply to your government, read more in Statement 85.  This one is effective for reporting periods beginning after June 15, 2017.  That’s June 30, 2018 for June 30 fiscal year ends.  But as previously mentioned, some of these have already been implemented.   And that’s okay because earlier application is encouraged.


Statement No. 86, Certain Debt Extinguishment IssuesIf you’re one of those lucky governments that has cash available to pay off existing indebtedness and you place that cash in an irrevocable trust to extinguish that debt, then this statement is for you.  Current guidance for in substance defeasance of debt only applies when using refunding debt proceeds to defease the debt.  Now we have similar guidance in Statement 86 for defeasing debt with existing resources.  One big difference, though, is that in financial statements using the economic resources measurement focus, governments should recognize any difference between the reacquisition price (the amount required to be placed in the trust) and the net carrying amount of the debt defeased in substance using only existing resources as a gain or loss in the period of the defeasance.  This is recognized immediately and not amortized over a longer period.  There are also provisions for note disclosures related to these types of debt defeasance.

And there’s more in this statement that applies to all debt extinguishments, whether through a legal extinguishment or through an in-substance defeasance.  If you have any remaining prepaid insurance related to these extinguished debt, that should be included in the net carrying amount of debt for purpose of calculating the difference between the reacquisition price and the net carrying amount of the debt.

Another additional disclosure is required for all in-substance defeasance transactions.  One of the criteria for determining an in-substance defeasance is that the trust hold only monetary assets that are essentially risk-free.  If the substitution of essentially risk-free monetary assets with monetary assets that are not essentially risk-free is not prohibited, governments should disclose that fact in the period in which the debt is defeased in substance.  In subsequent periods, governments should disclose the amount of debt defeased in substance that remains outstanding for which that risk of substitution exists.

This Statement is effective for periods beginning after June 15, 2017.  That’s June 30, 2018 for those June 30 fiscal year ends.

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Crawford & Associates was blessed with the opportunity to once again return to lovely San Juan, Puerto Rico and conduct the 2017 Crawford Government Learning Program, co-sponsored by the Puerto Rico Society of CPAs and the local firm of CPA Diaz Martinez. This two-day conference was filled with a variety of state and local government accounting and auditing training sessions in addition to an interactive session on Professional Ethics and Moral Behavior. Speaking at the conference this year were Frank Crawford, Mike Crawford, Marcy Twyman, Brenda Wright and Chris Pembrook. The Crawford & Associates gang were also treated to an evening reception with the group to enjoy drinks and island goodies on the terrace of the Sheraton Old San Juan. Our thanks go out to our great friends at CPA Diaz Martinez, especially Soane for all her help, and to the CPA Society for hosting us once again! It also didn't hurt that the rest of the Crawford & Associates work family joined us after the conference for a week-long cruise of the Southern Caribbean leaving out of San Juan!

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On October 21, 2016, the Crawford & Associates staff participated in the Oklahoma Society of CPA's annual Day of Service - an annual statewide outreach event where CPA's around the state take some time off to volunteer for a variety of worthy causes. This year, we were fortunate enough to have the opportunity to assist in the event set up for the 2016 Project31 - Breast Cancer Survivor Gala held in Oklahoma City. Project31 was created by two-time breast cancer survivor Sarah McLean to help women and their families work through the emotional scars left behind by breast cancer. Participating in the volunteer effort from the firm and pictured above with Sarah from left to right were Justin Kersey, Candy Dow, Mike Crawford, Andrea Depee, Debbie Crawford (a breast cancer survivor), Andres Nunez, and Marcy Twyman. Thanks to the OSCPA, Sarah and Project31, and the Crawford & Associates staff who were part of this rewarding endeavor.

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In September 2016, Crawford & Associates' retired Chairman, Mike Crawford was inducted into the Oklahoma Hall of Fame for City and Town Officials in recognition of his contributions to the betterment of municipal government in the State of Oklahoma. The Hall of Fame was formed in 1999 to recognize individuals for outstanding achievements and contributions to Oklahoma local government. To be selected, an honoree must make significant contributions to cities and towns, through their positive spirit of public service, with unquestioned ethics. Mike was honored for having been instrumental in the development and passage of many of the state laws applicable to Oklahoma municipalities, including the Municipal Budget Act, and for his long-term efforts to educate and train city and town clerks, treasurers and financial officials. He is the first CPA to be inducted into the Oklahoma Hall of Fame for City and Town Officials. Click here to see the Induction Ceremony booklet reference to Mike.

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On July 7, 2016, the USA Today published an article entitled Puerto Rico Debt Crisis is a Lesson for Guam. One of the sources of information used in the article was Crawford & Associates Performeter® financial analysis tool. Each year, the firm prepares a Performeter® analysis on the financial health and performance of the various nations and territories that comprised the former trust territories of the US. This financial analysis by the firm is used by the US Department of Interior to assist them in monitoring the financial management of these nations and territories. We are proud to be a part of the financial management process of these entities and also proud to see The Performeter® being effectively used in the process.

In August 2016, Performeter® results were also the basis for two news articles in Saipan and the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands regarding the financial health and performance of the CNMI government. Click here to see these articles.

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Posted by on in Laws Chat


The Second Session of the 55th legislature recently came to a close bringing several new laws of interest to municipal finance.   Below is a brief summary from the OML Sine Die of the laws.

Unemployment Benefits: HB 2253 makes a number of changes to the Employment Security Act including definitions of “wages”, “taxable wages”, “assigned tax rate” and “earned tax rate”. In addition, changes include appeal rules, benefit overpayments, benefit wage ratio, rate reduction for technology reinvestment apportionment, rate of employer unemployment tax and the like. In addition, the bill creates the OESC Technology Fund which from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2021 shall be funded by each employer subject to 40 O.S. Sections 3-109, 2-110.1 and 3-113 equal to five percent of the unemployment taxes that would be owed to the OESC before any rate reduction is made pursuant to Section 9 of this Act. This apportionment shall be in addition to any contribution which that employer is required to make pursuant to the employment Security Act of 1980. The bill also contains a repealer section. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2016.

Cable Television/Municipal Authority: HB 2358 amends 11 O.S. Section 22-107.1 and 107.2 regarding municipal authority concerning ordinances, certificates, licenses, permits or franchises for cable television. Among the changes in this detailed bill: “video services is substituted for “cable television”, rental payment for use of the public ways and grounds within the municipality shall not exceed 5% of the annual gross revenues derived by the video services provider from the provision of video services within the municipality, provision is made for ordinances regulating video services pursuant to the police power. The bill defines “video services”. The bill went into effect on April 12, 2016.

Open Records/Social Security Numbers: HB amends the Open Records Act 51 O.S. Section 24A.5. It provides that all social security numbers included in a record "may" be confidential regardless of the person's status as a public employee or private individual and "may" be redacted or deleted prior to release of the record by the public body. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2016.

Employment/Disability Insurance: HB 2785 amends 74 O.S. Section 1335 to authorize a city to participate in the Disability Insurance Program administered by the Oklahoma Employees Insurance and Benefits Board. A city, upon adoption of a resolution by the municipal governing body, may participate in the Disability Insurance Program administered by the Oklahoma Employees Insurance and Benefits Board. Upon the filing of a certified copy of the resolution with the Board, the city shall become a participant on the first day of the second full month following the filing of the resolution. All employees of any city electing to participate in the Program shall have disability insurance coverage. The city shall forward to the Board, at such times as determined by the Board, the contributions necessary to pay for the disability insurance coverage of the employees of the city. The Board shall determine the amount of contribution required for the disability insurance coverage. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2016.

9-1-1 Reform: HB 3126 creates the Oklahoma 9-1-1 Management Authority Act with rule making authority given to the Oklahoma Department of Emergency Management. The bill specifies the Authority’s organization, duties and limitations. A monthly fee of 75 cents is created on each wireless telephone connection and other communication device or service connection with the ability to dial 9-1-1 for emergency calls, services that are enabled by Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) or Internet Protocol (IP) and prepaid wireless retail transactions. Funds shall be used by public agencies only for services, equipment and operations related to 9-1-1 emergency telephone systems. The definition of “public agency” is expanded to also include “public district, public trust, sub-state planning district, public authority or tribal authority located within this state”. It repeals 63 O.S. Sections 2821, 2841, 2842, 2843, 2843.1, 2843.2, 2844, 2847, 2851, 2852 and 2853. Sections 1 through 13 take effect on November 1, 2016. Section 14 repealing numerous sections takes into effect on January 1, 2017.

Municipal Courts/DUI: HB 3146 is a detailed bill creating the Impaired Driving Elimination Act (IDEA) impacting municipal courts not of record. It preempts municipal ordinances relating to DUI or operating a motor vehicle while impaired. The preemption will not apply to municipal criminal courts of record for these offenses. A new $15 fee is assessed for the Oklahoma Impaired Driver Database Revolving Fund via amendments to 11 O.S. Section 14-111 and 28 O.S. Section 153. In addition, 28 O.S. Section 153.1 is amended to decrease from one-half to 25% the costs paid in these cases to municipalities with 25% also paid to the DA’s Council. New law is created to require municipal law enforcement officers who make an arrest to enter an impaired driver arrest report into the impaired driver database. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2016.

Unemployment Benefits/Seasonal Workers: HB 3164 creates new law regarding unemployment benefits by a seasonal worker performed in seasonal employment. Benefits are payable only for weeks of unemployment that occur during the normal seasonal work period. Benefits shall not be paid based on services performed in seasonal employment for any week of unemployment that begins during the period between two (2) successive normal seasonal work periods under certain conditions. The bill contains details including the application procedure to be designated a seasonal employer, notice requirements and definitions. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2016.

Sales & Use Tax/Refund Claims: HB 3205 amends 68 O.S. Section 227 by authorizing a taxpayer to claim a refund for erroneously paid sales tax and use tax “within two (2) years from the date of payment”. The Oklahoma Tax Commission (OTC) may accept an amended sale or use tax report or return as a verified claim for refund if they established a liability less than the original report or return previously filed. The bill takes effect on August 25, 2016.

Bidding/Public Trusts/Emergency: SB 154 amends 60 O.S. Section 176 by increasing the bidding requirement for an emergency from $50,000 to $75,000. The bill was signed by the Governor on April 6, 2016. Since the emergency clause failed in the House, the bill will go into effect August 25, 2016.

Municipal Audits/Income: SB 888 amends the municipal audit requirements of 11 O.S. Section 17-105. Municipal income shall not include any grant monies provided to a municipality from any federal, state or other governmental entity. The bill takes effect August 25, 2016.

Public Trust/Indebtedness: SB 1011 amends 60 O.S. Sections 176. A municipality with a governing body consisting of fewer than 7 members shall be required to approve the creation of an indebtedness or obligation by a three-fifths (3/5) vote of the governing body. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2016.

Water/Delinquent Account: SB 1029 creates new law regarding termination for a delinquent account where water service is provided to real property by one public entity but that property receives sewer or waste water service from another public entity. Under conditions in the bill, the governing body providing sewer or wastewater service may request the public entity providing water service to terminate water service. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2016.


Public Finance/City Manager: SB 1102 amends 11 O.S. Section 8-116 impacting a municipality with a population of less than 5,000 who employs a part-time city manager or a part-time city planner. 26 © 2016 Oklahoma Municipal League, Inc. The financial assistance via the Department of Commerce in current law is removed. The bill takes effect August 25, 2016.

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Posted by on in Accounting Chat

Well, the GASB has been busy at work since the last blog.  And so have I.  Here’s a summary of the new standards, listed by date of required implementation.  And early implementation is encouraged for these new standards.  So you don’t have to wait to implement these, for those eager beavers out there.

For periods beginning after June 15, 2015:

                GASB Statement No. 79, Certain External Investment Pools and Pool Participants – This is one standard that has multiple implementation dates.  Certain sections (paragraphs 18, 19, 23-26, and 40) have a later implementation date for periods beginning after December 15, 2016.  This standard establishes criteria for an external investment pool to qualify to making the election to measure all of its investments at amortized cost for financial reporting purposes.  Certain criteria have to be met in order to qualify for this type of reporting.  The criteria addresses 1) how the external investment pool transacts with participants; 2) requirements for portfolio maturity, quality, diversification, and liquidity, and 3) calculation and requirements of a shadow price.

                And if an external investment pool meets the criteria in this Statement and measure all its investments at amortized cost for financial reporting purposes, the pool’s participants should also measure their investments in that external investment pool at amortized cost for financial reporting purposes.


For periods beginning after December 15, 2016:

                GASB Statement No. 77, Tax Abatement Disclosures – Many governments offer tax abatements, particularly to encourage economic development.  When a government has an agreement between itself and an individual or entity where the government agrees to forgo tax revenues and the individual or entity promises to subsequently take specific action that contributes to economic development or otherwise benefits the government or its citizens, there will now be certain disclosure requirements to tell about these tax abatements.  This is one standard that doesn’t require additional accounting –only disclosures.

                GASB Statement No. 78, Pensions Provided through Certain Multiple-Employer Defined Benefit Pension Plans – This statement limits the scope and applicability of Statement 68.  This standard will apply in a case where pensions are provided to employees of state or local governmental employers in a cost-sharing multiple-employer defined benefit pension plan that meets these 3 points:

1.        Not a state or local governmental pension plan;

2.       Provides defined benefit pensions both to employees of state or local governmental employers AND to employees of employers that are NOT state or local governmental employers, AND

3.       Has no predominant state or local governmental employer (either individually or collectively with other state or local governmental employers that provide pensions through the pension plan)

For periods beginning after June 15, 2016:

                GASB Statement No. 80, Blending Requirements for Certain Component Units—An Amendment of GASB Statement No. 14 – This Statement amends Statement No. 14, The Financial Reporting Entity, as amended, to require blending of a component unit incorporated as a not-for-profit corporation in which the primary government is the sole corporate member.  However, the additional criterion does not apply to component units included in the financial reporting entity pursuant to the provisions of Statement No. 39, Determining Whether Certain Organizations Are Component Units.

                GASB Statement No. 82, Pension Issues—an amendment of GASB Statements No. 67, No. 68, and No. 73 – You may wonder what happened to Standard No. 81.  Did they void one?  No, the implementation date is just later, perhaps because additional time is needed to implement that one.  Also, this statement is another one with multiple implementation dates.  All but paragraph 7 are required to be implemented for periods beginning after June 15, 2016. 

Paragraph 7 requirements are effective for the employer in the first reporting period in which the measurement date of the pension liability is on or after June 15, 2017.  Paragraph 7 relates to the selection of assumptions.

But this standard was written to address certain items in the new pension standards that needed “tweaking”.  The “tweaked” items relate to:

1)      Presentation of payroll-related measures in required supplementary information--In Statements 67 and 68, it required presentation of covered-employee payroll, which was the gross payroll of employees provided with pensions.  This Statement amends that to define covered payroll as the payroll on which contributions to the pension plan are based, and applies that to ratios that use that measure.

2)      Selection of assumptions and treatment of deviations from guidance in an Actuarial Standard of Practice for financial reporting purposes – the statement clarifies that a deviation (as that term is defined in Actuarial Standards of Practice issued by the Actuarial Standards Board), from the guidance in an ASOP is not considered to be in conformity with the requirements of Statement 67, Statement 68, or Statement 73 for the selection of assumptions used in determining the total pension liability and related measures.

3)      Classification of payments made by employers to satisfy employee (plan member) contribution requirements – Clarification was made to note that payments made by an employer to satisfy contribution requirements identified as plan member contribution requirements should be classified as plan member contributions for purposes of Statement 67 and as employee contributinos for purposes of Statement 68.  It also requires that an employer’s expense and expenditures for those amounts be recognized in the period for which the contribution is assessed and classified in the same manner as the employer classifies similar compensation other than pensions (for example, as salaries and wages or as fringe benefits).

For periods beginning after December 15, 2016:

                GASB Statement No. 81, Irrevocable Split-Interest Agreements – Split-interest agreements are a type of giving agreement used by donors to provide resources to two or more beneficiaries, including governments.  In these types of agreements, a donor transfers resources to an intermediary to hold and administer for the benefit of a government and at least one other beneficiary.  Examples include charitable lead trusts, charitable remainder trusts, and life-interests in real estate.

                The Statement requires that a government that receives resources pursuant to an irrevocable split-interest agreement recognize assets, liabilities, and deferred inflows of resources at the inception of the agreement.  It also requires that a government recognize assets representing its beneficial interests in irrevocable split-interest agreements that are administered by a third party, if the government controls the present service capacity of the beneficial interests.  The government would recognize revenue when the resources become applicable to the reporting period.


Until next time….Thunder Up!

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The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants has released the latest edition of the Practice Aid Applying Special Purpose Frameworks in State and Local Governmental Financial Statements authored by firm Chairman Mike Crawford. Mike authored the original Practice Aid (formerly titled Applying OCBOA in State and Local Governmental Financial Statements) in 2003 and updated the Aid in 2012 and now again in 2015. The Practice Aid provides accounting, financial statement preparation and auditor reporting guidance for governmental entities electing or required to apply a special purpose framework, such as cash basis, modified cash basis or regulatory basis of accounting in the preparation of their financial statements.

The 2015 edition of the Practice Aid is available for purchase from the AICPA Store.  

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Posted by on in Crawford Chat


The Crawford & Associates staff were pleased to participate in the OSCPA 2015 CPA Day of Service this past October. While our involvement was not as we had planned, we were nonetheless pleased to be able to contribute to this statewide effort. Our staff was scheduled to work on the designated day of service at the OKC Regional Food Bank similar to last year where we would help prepare meals; however, we were contacted the day previous to our scheduled work day and informed the Food Bank had to unexpectedly close that day. That did not deter us though from getting involved in another way. We went out and purchased over 60 pounds of cereal and then dropped the boxes by the Food Bank. Thanks to the OSCPA for coordinating this annual event and giving statewide CPAs the opportunity to get involved in community service statewide.

(Pictured above from left to right: Dwayne Tate, Tammy Hunt, Mike Crawford, and Chris Pembrook) 

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Posted by on in Laws Chat

The 2015 Legislative session ended a few months ago and with it brings a few changes related to municipal finance.   Below is a brief summary from the OML Sine Die of those laws.


HB 1376 limits the Oklahoma Public Employees Retirement System exception section requiring a defined contribution system for those hired on or after November 1, 2015. This amendment to the exception in 74 O.S. Section 935.2, which includes municipal employees, limits participation in the defined benefit plan “only as long as he or she continues to be employed in a position” described in the exception. In addition, the employee and employer contributions are changed. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2015.


HB 1734 requires any person, firm or entity required to pay a tax, fine or other cost to the state or a local government to make the instrument payable to the state office of government and not an individual who holds public office. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2015.


HB 1825 modifies the list of governmental entities that may file certain claims to collect delinquent balances to include as qualified entities such as state agencies, municipal courts, district courts, public housing authorities and district attorneys seeking to collect unpaid court-ordered monetary obligations. It also repeals Title 68, Section 205.2, which is similar language in this same section. The bill went into effect on May 8, 2015.


HB 1965 creates the Trooper Nicholas Dees and Trooper Keith Burch Act. The bill bans the use of hand-held electronic devices to “manually compose, send or read an electronic text message” while operating a motor vehicle. The bill makes it a primary offense to text while driving. The bill levies a $100 fine and prohibits the Department of Public Safety from recording or assessing points on any license. It also makes exceptions for a device that is physically or electronically integrated into a motor vehicle, or a voice-operated global positioning or navigation system that is affixed to a motor vehicle, or a hands-free device that allows the user to write, send, or read a text message without the use of either hand except to activate, deactivate, or initiate a feature or function. Municipalities may enact and municipal police officers may enforce ordinances prohibiting and penalizing texting while driving. The ordinances shall not be more stringent and the fine and court costs for municipal ordinance violations shall be the same or less than the $100 fine. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2015.


HB 2005 amends the Firefighter Pension System regarding volunteers. It states a person 45 years old or older, as of the first date volunteer services are performed, shall not be eligible for the Pension System for any purpose and shall not receive any benefit or service credit. The Fire Chief shall make the final determination on applicants for volunteer firefighter services if the applicant is over age 45 based on local rules, ordinances and standard operating procedures. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2015.


HB 2119 permits the Division or awarding public agency to extend a contract award period no more than 120 days from the bid opening date upon the mutual written agreement between the lowest responsible bidder or bidders and the awarding public agency. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2015.


SSB 297 creates the Heritage Preservation Act creating a grant program for financial assistance to cities, counties, nonprofit 21 © 2015 Oklahoma Municipal League, Inc. organizations and tribal governments to operate and improve effectiveness of museums and historical organizations. The bill takes effect on August 20, 2015.


SB 327 repeals a number of sections in Title 8 regarding cemeteries, including cemeteries in towns, cemetery associations, cemetery funds and county cemetery associations. Of particular importance is the repeal of 8 O.S. Sections 81-87, 90, 91, 94, 111-115 and 131-141, which is language related to deposit of funds and County Cemetery Associations except references to invalidity clause and acceptance and use of monies and other items. In addition, any county of this state may use its employees and equipment for opening and closing graves and maintaining and improving any publicly owned or other cemetery within the county not owned and maintained by an individual or private organization. A reasonable fee may be charged. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2015.


SB 336 creates a sales tax exemption for organizations exempt from taxation via Section 501(c)(3) related to a fundraising event sponsored by the organization or entity when the event does not exceed any five (5) consecutive days and when the sales are not in the organization’s or the entity’s regular course of business. Provided, the exemption provided in this paragraph shall be limited to tickets sold for admittance to the fundraising event and items which were donated to the organization or entity for sale at the event. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2015.


SB 376 allows a municipality or a public trust with a municipality as its beneficiary to charge a convenience fee. The convenience fee shall be limited to bank processing fees and financial transaction fees, the cost of providing for secure transaction, portal fees, and fees necessary to compensate for increased bandwidth incurred as a result of providing for an online transaction. The bill also applies to the Uniform Consumer Credit Code. The bill takes effect on November 1, 2015.



Municipal Finance in Oklahoma is constantly changing, make sure your check the blog frequently for updates on Oklahoma Statute changes and the latest from GASB.  

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Posted by on in Crawford Chat

Firm Chairman, Mike Crawford has just established a new web site at whose mission is to educate and encourage individuals in living a life worth living through consistent application of a core set of moral principles. This web site is a natural follow up to his long-standing ethics presentation of the same title that has been in high demand and well received over the past ten years. The site contains a number of helpful educational resources and shares inspirational stories and quotes to encourage moral behavior in everyday life.

The site also introduces the Others B4 Self recognition program designed to formally recognize and applaud individuals who have shown random acts of kindness or consistently demonstrated compassion by putting the interest and welfare of others ahead of their own. Nominated individuals receive an Others B4 Self silicon bracelet and a special thank you card from the program as a token of appreciation. CLICK HERE to participate in this inspirational initiative by nominating a deserving individual.


Check out the new web site, share inspirational stories and get involved with the Others B4 Self program. 

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Posted by on in Accounting Chat

It’s that time of year when many people take vacations.  Mine is next week as a matter of fact.  But there’s no vacation for the Governmental Accounting Standards Board.  They are still hard at work.  Another accounting standard was approved in June that simplifies the “ladder of importance” of GAAP (generally accepted accounting principles) for governments.  GASB Statement No. 76 – The Hierarchy of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles for State and Local Governments basically reduces the categories of authoritative GAAP from four down to two.  Those two categories are:  1)  GASB Statements and 2) GASB Technical Bulletins, GASB Implementation Guides, and AICPA guidance that is cleared by GASB.  Also, Statement No. 76 discusses what to do when a particular issue is not covered by those two categories of authoritative GAAP.  You can download this standard, as well as the other standards adopted in June, on GASB’s website:  I already have my copy.  Be back in a week to read it—after vacation, of course.    

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